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International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Studies (IJHSSS)            

A Peer-Reviewed Bi-monthly Bi-lingual Journal of Humanities & Social Science=

ISSN: 2349-6959 (Online), ISSN: 2349-6711 (Print)

Volume-I, Issue-I, July 2014

Published by Scho= lar Publications, Karimganj, Assam, India, 788711

Website: http://www.ijhsss.com=


Higher Education Governance: Students’ Participation, Union Electio= ns & the Role of Lyngdoh Commission

Jarita Das=

Assistant Professor, M.H.C.M. Science College, Algapur



This paper, being introductory in kind and limited in its scope and objective, t= ries to outline some basic issues of Higher Education Governance and Student-Par= ticipation in the same. The paper focuses on Students’ Union, Election and Representat= ion of Students in the said Union, and the role of Lyngdoh Commission in the re= gard. It assumes that Lyngdoh Commission, with its recommendations on Students’ U= nion Election, has contributed considerably to the issue of Student-Participatio= n in Higher Education Governance. The paper adopts the method of qualitative data analysis and survey of relevant literature in the process of meeting its objectives.

Key Words:=     Governance, Higher Education, Students= ’ Participation, Union Election, Lyngdoh Commission


1.1Governance:  The term ‘Governance’ is used in a relatively small scale in commonplace language and day to day activities th= an the corresponding words like ‘govern’, ‘government’, ‘governable’ etc. In its common parlance, the term ‘governance’ is often used as a synonym for ‘ruli= ng’. However, ‘governance’ is distinct from ‘ruling’ in that the former implies legitimacy of the governors, which the latter does not suggest. In the contemporary world, the term has come to be used in a number of ways in relation to “the act, process, or mechanism of governing” i

and having concerns for legitimacy, accountability and governability. Governanc= e, thus, pertains to the action, manner, or system of governing and connotes t= he ideas of authority, control, or power. 


1.2. Higher Education Governance: High= er Education Governance has become a matter of much discussion and debate in t= he contemporary era with the rapid social and economic changes across the world resulting in global competitiveness, rapid development of transnational education, increasing intervention of quality assurance, research and innovation. It has become a key issue in the 21st Century demand= ing flexibility and autonomy for Higher Educational Institutions in their pursu= it of holistic education to meet the needs of the society and economy. 

     As a term of academic concern, Higher education Governance refers, in its most rudimentary sense, to the means by which Higher Educational Institutions are organized and managed. In broader sense, it can be said to encompass “a complex web including the legislative framework, the characteristics of the institutions and how they relate to t= he whole system, how money is allocated to institutions and how they are accountable for the way it is spent, as well as less formal structures and relationships which steer and influence behaviour.” ii Higher Education Governance, thus, connotes the ideas of operation, administration, accountability, and legitimacy of the Higher Educational Institutions.=

2. Higher education governance & students’ participation: Students h= ave a definite role to play in Higher Education Governance. The traditional idea = of student as a ‘passive receptor’ is no longer tenable in the contemporary wo= rld. Instead, there is a growing reorganization of students as a responsible sta= keholder and integral partner in the arena of Higher Education. They are assumed to = be capable of using resources in an effective and responsible manner as well as having the potential of becoming active and worthy global citizens given the chance to participate. The rights of students to organize themselves and to pursue their individual and social interests by participating in governance= of the institutions to which they are enrolled have also been given due import= ance. Besides, Higher Education in its pursuit of promoting ‘lifelong learning’ as well as ‘learning for life’ has felt the need of creating opportunities to = get students involved in organizations, activities, leadership and governance. = Thus, students are primary, rather than secondary or tertiary, agents through whi= ch the goals of governance in Higher Education can be achieved.


3.  Stud= ents’ union: a means of student-participation in =   governance

     Students’ Union is a formal body consisting of student representativ= es to administer governance in educational institutions. Most of the Higher Educational Institutions in India, comprising chiefly of Colleges and Universities, have their own Student Unions. The Students’ Union, on the one hand, ensures participation of students in the process of governance; while= on the other, provides students the means to select or elect members from among them to administer the governance of the institution to which they are enrolled.

     The Union members customarily hold significant posts concerning vari= ous activities, programmes and apex bodies of the parent organization; and cont= ribute a great deal to the process of decentralization of in Higher Education Governance. The members of the Union are either selected following a rudimentary procedure of merit-based nomination or are elected through dire= ct (Parliamentary) or indirect (Presidential) form of election.



4.1 Introd= ucing Lyngdoh Commission: The Lyngdoh Commission was constituted by Ministry of Human Resource Developmen= t, Government of India, as per the direction of the Hon’be Supreme Court of In= dia in matter of Special Leave Petition (Civil) No. 24295 of 2004 to frame guideli= nes on Students’ Union Elections in Colleges/Universities. iii The Committee was delegated to express its views upon eligibility of candidates= as regards their age, educational performance, limits of election expenses, so= urce of fund etc. as well as to “suggest a forum for ventilating grievances in c= ase a dispute arises as regards the fairness, eligibility of the candidate and/= or the non-observance of norms while holding the elections.” iv

     The aim behind constitution of the Committee was to make the Student= s’ Union Elections transparent, democratic, and free from political bias. It w= as hoped that the Committee would highly influence factors like transparency, accountability a= nd discipline as concerns College/University elections. The stimul= ating origin was a decision of High Court of Kerala stating: “it was open to the educati= onal institutions to prohibit political activities within the college campus and forbid students from organizing or attending meetings other than the offici= al ones within the college campus.” v








The Lyngdoh Commission consisted of = the following members:

    =                                                  =                                                  <= /p>

Shri J. M. Lyngdoh                                                   Chairman

Former Chief Election Commissioner


Prof. Zoya Hassan                                                 =     Member


Centre for Political Studies


Dr. Pratap Bhanu Mehta                                         Member

President & Chief Executive=

Centre for Policy Research, New Delh= i

Prof. Ved Prakash                                                 =    Member


National Institute of Educational Planning

 & Administration (NIEPA), New Delhi<= o:p>


Shri I. P. Singh                                                 =          Member

Retired Deputy Comptroller and Audit= or General


Prof. Dayanand Dongaonkar                                  Convenor

Secretary General<= /p>

Association of Indian Universities (= AIU)

New Delhi


             (Source: Lyndoh Committee Re= port,

             Department of Secondary and = Higher Education, MHRD, New Delhi, p-7)


4.2 Lyngdoh Commission: Its Concerns and Commissions:  Lyndoh Commission, in its process of framing guidelines for Students’ Union Electi= on for Colleges/Universities, has conducted several public hearings and meetin= gs; discussed with various student organizations like AVBP,NSUI, AISF, SFI etc; closely examined the Election Procedure of various Universities across India such as Jhadhavpur University, West Bengal, Jawaharlal Nehru University, un= iversity of Hyderabad, Hyderabad etc.; consulted the Constitution of India and recent observations of UGC on Student Elections; and compiled a detailed report of= its observation, analysis and recommendation. The Commission submitted its final report to the Ministry of Human Resource Development on 23rd May 2006.

     The report of the Lyngdoh Commission, popularly known as Lyngdoh Commission Report, exceeds the initial mandate prescribed by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India and covers a wide range of areas and issues. Thus the commission, in addition to prescribing norms for regulating the conduct of the Election process, turns up making some valuab= le recommendations as well as suggesting models of Students’ Union Election.

4.3 Recomm= endations of Lyngdoh Commission: Some of the major recommendations of the Lyngdoh Commission concerning Students’ Union Election and having relevance to Students’ Participation in Higher Education Governance are as outlined belo= w:

·      =    Elections should be held on a yearly basis between 6 to 8 weeks from the date of commencement of the academic session; and the entire process of elections should be completed within 10 days.


·      =    Students between 17-22 years of age, post graduate students between 24-25 years and research students up to 28 years can legitimately contest and election.


·      =    No person, except a student on the roles of the College/University shall be permitted to take part in the process in any capacity; and candidate must b= e a regular, full time student.


·      =    The candidate must have minimum 75% of attendance; and should have no academic areas.


·      =    Criticism of other candidate should exclude all aspect of private life and should be devoid of caste and communal feelings; and places of worship should not be = used for election propaganda.


·      =    The maximum permitted expenditure per candidate shall be Rs. 5000/- subject to submission of audited accounts within 2 weeks of declaration of the result = and publication of the same by college/ university within next 2 days.


·      =    Only hand-made posters at specified places can be used for canvassing. The use of printed materials, loud speakers, vehicles or animals for canvassing should= be avoided; no one without a valid pass / letter of authority shall be allowed= to enter polling booths.


4.4 Object= ions to Lyngdoh Commission Recommendations: The Lyngdoh Commission Report has be= en severely attacked by various Political Parties, Students’ Organizations and other bo= dies for some of its recommendations. Both the Congress and BJP criticized the Lyngdoh Recommendation for non-involvement of Political Parties in Campus elections. Highlighting the necessity of fostering future leadership of the country, these two parties claimed that “in a democracy where students fight elections based on ideology, political par= ties are like a source of inspiration.vi The SFI, which is aligned to the CPM, has also been skeptical over the proposal of indirect elections. They doubted this move o= f Lyngdoh Commission to be the interest of private managem= ents as against student activism: “While there is need to eradicate violence and= criminalization of student politics, we must remember that it is in the interest of private managements to put an end to student movement.” vii The ABVP and= the NSUI were equally outspoken against the committee recommendation of Rs. 500= 0/- as election expense of a candidate. The DSUJNU viewed the the Lyngdoh Commission’s claim of combating money and muscle power as a smokescreen to restrict student-participation in election process and to weaken students’ unions so as to “push the agenda of Privatization and Commercialization of Higher Education” viii.

     The commission recommendations on age, attendance and grades are also disregarded by most of the above mentioned organizations. It is also pointed out that the Commission is lacking in appropriate mechanism to “monitor the implementations of its recommendations” ix. It has also been arg= ued that the commission recommendations have “gone against the spirit of campus democracy” x. The Commission has also been held to be undemocrat= ic for not facilitating the scope of SC/ST representation in students’ electio= ns: “This goes against the Constitutional policy of encouraging people from background communities to be a part of the larger societal and political setup.” xi


5. Finding= s and conclusion: Lyngdoh Commission, despite its apparent drawbacks, did make some prospective moves= in respect of Representation and Student- Participation in Higher Education Governance. For one thing, apart from taking all the Higher Educational Institutions across India within the ambit of a structured and uniform patt= ern of Students’ Union Election, the Commission has made the said election procedure comparatively less ambiguous, free from personal and political bi= as, transparent and self-contained. Besides, there is little scope for political influence, overflow of unnecessary funds and use of force or violent means = in the process of election. Moreover, the commission allowing all students irrespective of their caste, creed, sex, and linguistic and ethnic backgrou= nds to participate in the election process has tried to promote the democratic rights of students. Furthermore, by imposing restrictions on use of religio= us places as propaganda, the Lyngdoh Commission has supplemented its spirit for and of democracy.

     In a nut shell, Lyngdoh Commission h= as made the Students’ Union Election comparatively flexible, orderly, fair and democratic; thereby infusing a sense of propriety in respect of student governance. Nevertheless, the study conducted by the Liberal Youth Forum (LYF) shows that there is poor awareness among the stud= ents about the Lyngdoh Committee Recommendations: Only 39% o= f the students have heard of Lyngdoh recommendationsxii. Further, the study conducted by the Liberal Youth Forum also makes it clear that the committ= ee recommendations have not been implemented uniformly across the country: “The Study = found that less than 46 percent of the colleges where the study was conducted had implemented Lyngdoh Committee recommendations while 5 percent of the colleg= es had partially implemented it.” xiii Careful amputation of its mi= nor drawbacks and proper implementation of the Lyngdoh recommendations would de= finitely ensure added participation of Students in the matter of governance and supplement effective governance in Higher Educational Institutions.



i The American Heritage, 4th Edition copyright, Houghton Mifflin Compa= ny, 2009.

ii Changing Patterns of Governa= nce in Higher Education, Education Policy Analysis,

OECD, 2003, p-61


iii Letter of the Chairman, J. M. Lyngdoh, forwarding the Report to MHRD dated 23rd

May’ 2006


iv Lyngdoh Committee Report, Department of Secondary and Higher Education, MHRD,

New Delhi, p-8


v Lyngdoh Committee Report, Department of Secondary and Higher Education, MHRD,

New Delhi, p-1

vi Campus Elections: The Party = Time is Over, Saturday Extra, The Tribune, Saturday,

October 14, 2006


vii Campus Elections: The Party = Time is Over, Saturday Extra, The Tribune, Saturday,

October 14, 2006


viii Why we m= ust reject Lyngdoh Committee Recommendations in toto? Expose & defeat the ruling

class assault on radical students’ movements – Part I, Nov 10, 2013,   access Jan 16, 2014,

http://dsujnu.blogspot.in/2013/11/why-we-must-reject-lyngdoh-committ= ee.html


ix Report on Student Participat= ion in Campus Democracy and Governance in India,

Liberal Youth Forum, Campus Democracy V-5.0, p- 77


x Report on Student Participat= ion in Campus Democracy and Governance in India,

Liberal Youth Forum, Campus Democracy V-5.0, p- 101


xi Report on Student Participat= ion in Campus Democracy and Governance in India,

Liberal Youth Forum, Campus Democracy V-5.0, p- 103


xii Report on Student Participat= ion in Campus Democracy and Governance in India,

Liberal Youth Forum, Campus Democracy V-5.0, p- 8


xiii Report on Student Participat= ion in Campus Democracy and Governance in India,

Liberal Youth Forum, Campus Democracy V-5.0, p- 8


Government of India (2006). National Knowledge Commission. Report of the Working

Group on Undergraduate Education.  

Government of India (2008). University Grants Commission. Higher Education in

India:Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and Finance. New Delhi: University Grants Commission.


VIKALPA, Vol. 29,

No. 2, April-June 2004.


The Search for New Governance of Hi= gher Education in Asia. Ed. by

                       <= /p>

  The Role of Student Affairs and Services in Higher Education-A

Practical Manual. UNESCO, = Paris.

 = ;

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Volume-I, Issue-I                                    =                                July 2014                                                                        =          66

Volume-I, Issue-I                                    =                                July 2014                                                                        =          65

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